The internet is a network of networks & the web is a distributed system that runs on top of the internet.
Examples of Networks-
Components of a network-
2.Non Dedicated Server
We cannot use dedicated servers as a workstation & they are entirely dedicated to their connected workstations. Users access shared directories & resources on dedicated server.Eg. Novel NetWare.
Non dedicated Server
The machine used as a server can also operate as a workstation.
When a computer is connected to a network, it becomes a node on the network & is called a workstation or client.
- Network Interface Card(NIC)
Each computer attached to a network requires a network interface card(NIC) that supports a specific networking scheme such as Ethernet, ArcNet or Token Ring.
- Cabling System
Shared Resources & Peripherals
Advantages of bus n/w
1)Short cable length & simple wiring layout because there is a single common data path connecting all nodes.
Simplicity in architecture that makes it very reliable from a h/w point of view.
3)Easy to Extend
Additional node can be connected at any point along its length.
1)Fault diagnosis is difficult
Control of n/w is not centralized. This means that detection of a fault may be performed from many points in the n/w.
2)Fault isolation is difficult
In case where the fault is in the n/w medium itself,an entire segment of the bus must be disconnected.
When a bus n/w has its backbone extended using repeaters,reconfiguration may be necessary.
In a ring n/w (loop n/w),several devices or computers are connected to each other in a closed loop by a single communication cable. Here data must travel around the ring to each station in turn until they arrive at the station.A ring can be unidirectional or bidirectional.
Broadcast n/w can be further divided into static & dynamic, depending on how the channel is allocated.
Static allocation uses round robin algorithm, allowing each machine to broadcast only when its time slot comes up.
Dynamic allocation method for a common channel are either centralized-there is eg. a bus arbitration unit,which determines who goes next or decentralized -there is no central entity, each machine must decide for itself whether to transmit.
Advantages of Ring n/w
1)Short cable length-A ring topology, is comparable to that of bus & is small relative to that of star.Less connection will be needed,which will in turn increase n/w reliability.
2)No wiring closet space required:since there is only 1 cable connecting each node.
3)Suitable for optical fibre:because traffic on a ring travel in 1 direction.
Disadvantage of Ring n/w
1)Node failure causes n/w failure. If 1node fails to pass through itself,entire n/w has failed & no traffic can flow until the defective node has been removed from the ring.
2)Difficult to diagnose fault:The fault if 1 node will affect all others.
3)N/w reconfiguration is difficult: For a very big ring n/w it is not possible to shut down a small section of a ring.Reconfiguration will have to be done.
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